Saturday, January 13, 2018

The 108 Vices of Buddhism

108 Defilements of Buddhism
(Hyakku no bonnou)

In the New Year's there is a custom of Buddhist temples ringing their bells 108 times. Usually this is a process that takes place at midnight.
The Chion-in Temple in Kyoto has the largest bell in Japan and has a special ceremony around 8:30pm, this is because their famous neighbor, Gion Yasaka Shrine, attracts huge crowds at midnight.
Some temples have special ceremonies in which regular people can line up and have a turn at ringing the bell, but this can get rather competitive as there are usually far more than 108 volunteers for the honor.
The reason that the bells are rung 108 times is due to the recurring value of the number 108 in Buddhist philosophy. Particularly,  in relation to the new year, the bells are rung to rid visitors of the 108 vices that are thought to afflict human existence.
In Buddhist philosophy these afflictions are called "klesha" in Japanese the word "bonnou" refer to this problems. In English this concept is translated with different terms; defilements, vices, evils, earthly desires...
Below is a list of the vices with a Japanese translation of each. Note that some of the words are redundant (deciept/deception, envy/enviousness...) this is due to the difficulty of translating the original philosophical doctrines into different languages which makes it difficult to express the contextual nuances of this confusing similar words.
Also, the noun form is used for the general term of the problems but in many cases a verb form is used to approximate the meaning of some problems.
In the future I will try to provide the kanji, English explanation for difficult terms and an bilingual study activity for these concept.

  1. Abuse らんよう
  2. Aggression しんりゃく
  3. Ambition やしん
  4. Anger いかり
  5. Arrogance おうへい
  6. Baseness ひれつ
  7. Blasphemy ぼうとく
  8. Calculation ださん
  9. Callousness むしんけい
  10. Capriciousness うつりぎ
  11. Censoriousness けんしき
  12. Conceitedness おごり
  13. Contempt けいべつ
  14. Cruelty ざんこく
  15. Profanity ふけい
  16. Debasement ふはいだらく
  17. Desceipt ひまん
  18. Deception きへん
  19. Delusion もうしゅう
  20. Derision ぐろう
  21. Desire for fame  めいよしん
  22. Dipsomania (alcoholism) かつしゅうへき
  23. Discord ふわ
  24. Disrespect ふけい
  25. Disrespectfulness (flippancy) けいはく
  26. Dissatisfaction ふまん
  27. Dogmatism どくだんろん
  28. Dominance ゆうせ
  29. Eagerness わっしん
  30. Effrontery そうがん
  31. Egoism りこしゅぎ
  32. Enviousness みたみ
  33. Excessiveness かど
  34. Falseness ぎ
  35. Faithlessness ふじつ
  36. Garrulity たげん
  37. Gluttony たいしょく
  38. Greed よく
  39. Avarice りよく
  40. Grudgeうらみ
  41. Hard heartedness じゃけん
  42. Hatred にくしみ
  43. Haughtiness ごうもん
  44. High-handedness せんおう
  45. Hostility てきい
  46. Humiliation くつじよく
  47. Hurt いたみ
  48. Hypocrisy ぎぜん
  49. Ignorance もうまい
  50. Imperiousness そんだい
  51. Imposture だぎ
  52. Impudence てつめんぴ
  53. Inattentiveness ふねっしん
  54. Indifference ふねっしん
  55. Ingratitude ぼうおん
  56. Insatiability ぼうsじょく
  57. Insidiousness いんきな
  58. Intolerance ふかんよう
  59. Intransigence がんこ
  60. Irresponsibility むできにん
  61. Jealousy しっと
  62. Furtiveness ひみつ
  63. Gambling  かけ
  64. Know-it-all しったかぶりや
  65. Lack of comprehension (stupidity) むち
  66. Lecherousness いんらん
  67. Lying/dishonesty ふしょうじき
  68. Malignancy あくしつ
  69. Manipulation あやつ
  70. Masochism じぎゃく
  71. Mercilessness むざんさ
  72. Negativity はんたい
  73. Obsession こだわり
  74. Obstinancy いじ
  75. Oppression あっせい
  76. Ostentatiousness きょしょくてき
  77. Pessimism ひかん
  78. Prejudice へきけん
  79. Presumption すいてい
  80. Presence しゃこう
  81. Pride じまん
  82. Prodigality ほうとう
  83. Quarrelsomeness けんかすきなこと
  84. Rage けきど
  85. Rapacity ごうよく
  86. Ridicule ぐろう
  87. Sadism しきゃく
  88. Sarcasm いやみ
  89. Seducement ゆうわく
  90. Self-denial じこひてい
  91. Self-hatred じこけんお
  92. Sexual lust あいよく
  93. Shamelessness こうがん
  94. Stinginess りんしょく
  95. Stubbornness いじ
  96. Torment くろしめる
  97. Tyranny ぼうせい
  98. Unkindness ふじんせつ
  99. Unruliness ふじゅうじゅん
  100. Unyielding きょうこ
  101. Vanity きょえいしん
  102. Vindictiveness しゅうねんぶかい
  103. Violence ぼうりょく
  104. Violent temper かんしゃくだま
  105. Voluptuousness (seeking things that are full of pleasure) あだっぱさ
  106. Wrath どき
  107. Obstinancy いじ
  108. Envy せんのう